Wednesday, April 27, 2016
ITP V.016 SOCIAL JUSTICE: 1989 HILLSBOROUGH DISASTER: POOR POLICE DECISION and STADIUM DESIGN AND SAFETY FLAWS TO BLAME FOR FANS DEATH
A follow up to a portion of ITP V.012 THE ART OF DANCE PART 8: CROWD SURGES:
ITP V.016 EDITORS NOTE: After extensive research, ITP's author would like to add, most of the examples of crowd surges noted in said journal entry were very well behaved crowds misdirected due to poor crowd management (LOVE TUNNEL 2010-almost a million people, and most helped others to safety).The badly behaved crowds were "Black Friday Crowds" and "possibly (?)" THE WHO incident.
The (4/2016) jury of 1989 HILLSBOROUGH DISASTER concluded that the actions of the fans did NOT contribute to their death.
After 27 years ( the longest court case in British history), a jury has reached a verdict for the infamous (4/15/1989) 1989 HILLSBOROUGH DISASTER citing POOR POLICE DECISION and STADIUM DESIGN AND SAFETY FLAWS TO BLAME FOR FANS DEATH .
Tragedy struck when a crowd surge/crush killed 97 people, injuring 766 others at a 4/15/1989 football (soccer) match between LIVERPOOL and NOTTINGHAM FOREST at HILLSBOROUGH STADIUM. A large group of fans were misdirected, causing over crowding and a massive crush of fans in a fenced area of the stands.
According to WIKEPEDIA, a bottleneck of people developed when fans presenting tickets at the wrong turnstile, and/or being denied entry could not leave as the crowd behind them were an obstruction.
Fans were directed into a tightly packed fenced in pen, as some climbed out and others died of compressive asphyxia.
FROM WIKEPEDIA: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hillsborough_disaster
In fatal crowd disasters, compressive asphyxia from being crushed against the crowd causes the large part of the deaths, rather than blunt trauma from trampling. This is what occurred at the Ibrox disaster in 1971, where 66 Rangers fans died; the 1979 The Who concert disaster where 11 died; the Luzhniki disaster in 1982, when 66 FC Spartak Moscow fans lost their life; and at the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, when 96 Liverpool fans were crushed to death in an overcrowded terrace. In confined spaces, people push and lean against each other; evidence from bent steel railings in several fatal crowd accidents have shown horizontal forces over 4500 N (equivalent to a weight of approximately 450 kg, or 1014 lbs). In cases where people have stacked up on each other forming a human pile, estimations have been made of around 380 kg (838 lbs) of compressive weight in the lowest layer.
FROM REUTERS UK:
Hillsborough relatives react to inquest verdictsPolice were responsible for the deaths of 96 Liverpool football fans in the 1989 Hillsborough stadium crush, a jury concluded after two years of hearings into Britain's worst sporting disaster: http://reut.rs/1SJuO2W
FROM BBC NEWS:
Families of the 96 Liverpool FC fans who died at #Hillsborough crying and hugging after a jury concludes the fans' behaviour did NOT contribute to the stadium disaster. The 96 were unlawfully killed.
Live updates: http://bbc.in/1MVpQRw
FROM THE GUARDIAN: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3561405/Prosecutions-Hillsborough-disaster-overwhelmingly-public-interest.html
Hillsborough: the anatomy of a disaster.
The new Hillsborough inquest has vindicated the families long traumatic fight for justice and delivered a verdict that the 96 were unlawfully killed due to the failures of South Yorkshire police. This is the story behind one of the world's worst football disasters.
VIDEO BELOW: HILLSBOROUGH ANATOMY OF DISASTER (COURTESY OF THE GUARDIAN):
Thanks-Stay Metal, Stay Brutal-\m/ -l-
Condolences to all victims friends and family.
"You'll never walk alone".